India successfully TOOK ADVANTAGE OF THE COLD WAR ( exploiting the tensions between the superpowers), by becoming a Soviet ally, and getting Soviet backing/veto to invade other territories.
A FEW EXAMPLES-
INDIAN ARMY invaded Goa in 1961 ( Soviet leader Brezhnev was in India at that time of war, backing India’s operations. . Also Soviets vetoed the UN Resolution calling for ceasefire and withdrawal of Indian forces. Therefore the US naval fleet could not react to the Indian Aggression)
INDIAN ARMY invaded Kashmir, Hyderabad 1948, Sikkim in 1974, without holding a plebiscite to determine these people’s wishes. No International intervention due to Soviet cover.
India INVADED East Pakistan in 1971 ( only after signing the Indo-Soviet Friendship treaty a few month earlier, which guaranteed Soviet support for the 1971 invasion). US (President Nixon) sent the Task Force 74 with aircraft carrier USS Enterprise to the Bay of Bengal. But the Soviet Navy dispatched two groups of ships, armed with nuclear missiles, who trailed US fleet. USSR also vetoed UN resolutions calling for ceasefire and withdrawal of Indian forces. Again, the US fleet could not bomb the Indian forces due to the COLD WAR politics. However, the presence of the US fleet, forced India to withdraw, creating a new nation of Bangladesh. Otherwise the East Pakistan territory would have been OCCUPIED territory ( like Goa, Kashmir, Sikkim, etc)
A GENOCIDE against the Sikhs by the INDIAN ARMY in the 1980s.. India got away with this crime, due to the COLD WAR tensions.
The last territory INDIAN ARMY illegally invaded, during the COLD WAR, was Sianchen Glacier in 1984.
After the COLD WAR ended in 1990, India’s expansion also stopped. Another Soviet ally Iraq thought it could expand , and invaded Kuwait in 1990, but was quickly demolished by US (with no Soviet rescue) with huge reparation costs. India too realised that it had no cover from Russia, and would be susceptible to International Military Intervention, if it tried to INVADE any more territory. Now India is trying its best to HOLD ON to the territories it had already illegally INVADED in the past. But for how long ??
KARGIL CONFLICT (1998) was the FIRST conflict fought by INDIA after the end of COLD WAR.... Initially, when gun-toting infiltrators were detected on Kargil mountains, the INDIAN ARMY and AIR FORCE threw everything at its disposal at the intruders. However, this could not achieve any substantial gains. Indian soldiers tried to climb the mountains to capture the peaks, but they were mowed down by AK- 47s. The entire Indian Air force kept bombing the mountains, but still, they could not accurately target the intruders at high altitudes. Only the accurate Swedish Bofors artillery Guns made some impact, but the constant shelling of the mountains caused a shortage of Bofors shells and spare parts.. The INDIAN ARMY was STUCK !! With their whole armoury slowly getting depleted. ----Next, the INDIAN ARMY then threatened to attack Pakistan by crossing the international border , but this was considered to be an aggressive act by the international community. Moreover, as an aggressor, India’s rival Pakistan would have got instant support ( via military hardware/logistics/ technology supplies from US) to punish India ..---- For the FIRST TIME, India was in a precarious situation with no Soviet protection/ Veto/ diplomatic support. So INDIAN ARMY had to abide by the International rules. They even kept their fighter jets within their own airspace. Unfortunately, two fighter jets accidentally strayed into Pakistani airspace and were swiftly shot down. ----But in the end, by following the rules obediently, India got the much needed international diplomatic support. Laser guided missiles/ technology (supplied by Israel, approved by US) were fitted into Indian Mirage 2000 fighter jets to accurately target the intruders at high altitudes. Heron surveillance drones ( from Israel) provided high altitude real-time imagery of targets. Bofors shells (given by South Africa/ Israel) provided greater firepower, which led to a significant Indian advantage during the conflict. The Pakistani infiltrators eventually withdrew from Kargil ,after a few months stay in these mountains, bowing down to negative international opinion.
As of today, INDIA has been reduced to just making external threats (of striking Pakistan) along with their Bollywood-style jingo Indian media/ news channels, to fool the illiterate/ ignorant Indians. Internally, however, the INDIAN forces continue to kill/ blind/ suppress the indigenous civilians ( Kashmiris, Manipuris, etc), although much reduced now, due to international monitoring since the massacres of the 1990s.